Data communication is the primary component that connects us the devices and services we rely on in our interconnected digital world. It encompasses a variety of methods and technologies that govern the way information is transferred from one end to the other. Understanding how this works can help us to design reliable and efficient networks that can reap the benefits of increased connectivity like improved business efficiencies in productivity, as well as advancements in automation.

Data communication is the transfer of data between computers through channels or medium. This can be done via cables, radio frequency, satellite signal or wirelessly. The sender is the individual or device transmitting data and the receiver is the computer that receives the data. A data communication network may comprise more than two computer involved in a process of communication.

Multiplexing and Demultiplexing are communication technologies that optimize bandwidth usage and cut costs. Both require special hardware capable of combining and separate these signals. Custom integrated circuits are frequently used to perform this function and are present in a variety of communication devices, including phones, computers and printers.

The mode of data communication that allows for simultaneous two-way communication between a pair of devices is called full-duplex communications. This is a more complex mode than simplex transmission since it requires sending and receiving data at the same time.